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Diabetes mellitus—often referred to as diabetes—is a condition in which the body either does not produce enough, or does not properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood (hyperglycemia), leading to various potential complications. Prochymal, the adult stem cell product derived from bone marrow and developed by Osiris Therapeutics, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of type I diabetes. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-site Phase II clinical trials have a target enrollment of 60 patients, each one of whom will receive 3 infusions over a period of 2 months.